projections to an economist. The heterogeneity of both the fc demand conditions throughout the world are exceedingly difJ mine and to interpret. For the smaller part of the population-t live in countries with high per capita income-the adequacy o food during the foreseeable future is not in doubt. But for the 1 "developing" or "less developed") countries, the part of th< most of the people live, where the rate of population growt where agriculture has been niggardly, the food-population qua] real (2, 3). No wonder there are fears of famine. Per capita fo in several countries with large populations failed to stay abr creases in population during most of the sixties.* The large : grains that had accumulated in the high income countries with tural capacity were drawn down. As recently as 4 years ago tl pect seemed grim. There is a new awareness, however, of the food problem. T grain crisis^ that became evident in parts of south Asia, mainl: even in the Soviet Union during the early 1960's has rup warranted complacency that dominated so much of economi tween 1945 and 1965. My plan is to examine four issues. First, I shall comment ( our knowledge and attempt to distinguish between what is kno1 not known, and I shall also specify the time span under cons ond, I shall interpret the economic dynamics that character: food economy. Third, I shall call attention to some interac agricultural productivity and population growth. Last, I sh; conclusions that emerge along with qualifications to be kept in KNOWING OR ASSUMING? The food supply controversy could mean that we are not a question. The age-old question, "Will there be enough food1? answered in the minds of most people. If testimony were requir voiced for centuries in the prayer, "Give us this day our daily retical and empirical analyses have not given us the knowledge the answer. The reason why we do not know is due in part tc nature of the question in coping with an exceedingly comple part, it is a consequence of the fact that the state of knowledge food and population consist of fragments, and it is very diffici them. There is also the additional fact that even the fragments t *Food production increased less than population in the developing re whole, between 1959-61 and 1965-67. See (4, Vol. Ill, Table 4). tThe thrust of my William W. Cook lectures at the University of Micl an analysis of the then critical state of the world food problem (5).ty, particularly in the cities, places supreme tests on municipal as well as higherid waste and sewage problems are severe, housing conditions very bad, and public health levels low. Densely populated urban slums and poverty-stricken rural villages alike are characterized by physical environments of generally poor quality, although specific conditions vary from one situation to another. In the large cities of less developed countries air pollution and congestion wills.red to be incomplete.